Monday, 2 May 2016

Correlation of e-Gov Transactions with Some Other State Wise Data of Indian States


This is an attempt to find correlation of some of the aspects of State Wise Data of Indian States with e-Gov Transactions data available at e-taal website (e-taal is a web portal for dissemination of e-Transactions statistics of National and State level e-Governance Projects including Mission Mode Projects). The respective correlation coefficients are given in the table (TABLE - 1) below. The details are displayed in excel sheet in the following list:-
 
 
 TABLE - 1
Correlation Coefficients of eTransaction/1000 Population* (eTx) with respect to some of  State Wise Data of Indian States
eTx with Population 0.082481
eTx with Sex-Ratio 0.270576
eTx with Literacy 0.20019
eTx with Urbanization 0.247364
eTX with Density of Population 0.036462
eTx with Area of State 0.126776
References : -
http://www.census2011.co.in/states.php
 
*STATE WISE eTRANSACTION / 1000 POPULATION (source-e-Taal, 1 JAN 2015 till 31 MAR 2016)

Provisional data released by Census India, Census 2011 (http://indiafacts.in/india-census-2011/urban-rural-population-o-india/)   

 
Some more correlation coefficients are given in the tables (TABLE - 2 & 3) below. Related investigations on the data are details in the sheet that can be accessed through following link:-

Correlation of eGov Transaction Data with some of the State Wise Data of Indian States with other related calculations (for TABLE - 2 and TABLE - 3)

TABLE - 2
Correlation Coefficient of eTransaction/1000 Population* (eTx) with respect to some of  State Wise Data of Indian States
eTx with (Literacy + Urbanization) 0.28110838
eTx with (Literacy + Urbanization + % Sex-Ratio) 0.34426227
eTx with (Urbanization + % Sex-Ratio) 0.34116737

TABLE - 3
Some other related Correlation Coefficients 
% Sex-Ratio with Urbanization  -0.187446439
Literacy(%) with Urbanization  0.62547127
% Sex-Ratio with Literacy -0.025630917


An attempt to assess the above data has been made in the points below. However, based on the following discussions, it may not be possible to reach to conclusions:-
  1. From TABLE - 1, Correlation Coefficients of eTransaction/1000 Population (eTx) with respect to Sex-Ratio and Urbanization have been observed to be having higher values (0.27 & 0.25 respectively). NeGP (National e-Governance Plan) was initiated in 2008. In 2015, the next phase of e-Governance Initiative has been started under Digital India program. Let us assume that by now more or less similar e-Government service facilities are available across India for rendering basic government services. Therefore, the correlation figures may suggest that e-Governance services are seen to have been used more extensively in the states with higher  Urbanization and better Sex-Ratios.
  2. TABLE - 3 suggest marginal negative correlation between Sex-Ratio and Urbanization. This can be explained through many studies. Evidence show that the practice of sex-selective abortions is more prevalent in urban areas and amongst the well educated women. (Guilmoto, C.Z. (2007), “Characteristics of sex- ratio imbalance in India and future scenarios”,UNFPA and Jha, P., Kumar,R., Vasa,P., Dhingra,N., Thiruchelvam,D. and Moineddin, R. (2006), “Low maleto-female sex ratio of children born in India: national survey of 1.1 million households”, The Lancet, 367 (9506): 211- 218 )  
  3. In an attempt to understand better correlation between eTx and Sex-Ratio (observed in point - 1 above), if it could be assumed that better Sex-Ratio indicate Gender Equality and similarly, use of eTransaction by more and more people indicate general inclination for more accessible, friendly and service oriented democratic institutions, then the work on Gender Equality and Democracy by  Ronald Inglehart; Pippa Norris and Christian Welzel indicating that growing emphasis on gender equality is a central component of the process of democratization seems to be holding true. (Source - Comparative Sociology, Volume 1, Issue 3, pages 321 – 345; 2002; ISSN: 1569-1322 E-ISSN: 1569-1330)
  4. The correlation between eTx and Urbanization can be attributed to a strong digital divide in urban population with respect to rural population in India. At national level, there is no single (digital) divide, but multiple (digital) divides: for instance; within countries, between men and women, young and elderly, rich and poor and most importantly rural and urban (Dr. Sumanjeet Singh, Ramjas College Digital Divide in India: Measurement, Determinants and Policy for Addressing the Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide; JEL Codes: R58; Z13; O33; I38). The phrase “digital divide” refers to the unique and disproportionate pace of development in societies in having access to digital infrastructure and services (Paul,J .2002). 

References:-

http://www2.hw.ac.uk/sml/downloads/economics/HW_DP_2012_01.pdf
http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-1213/ijsrp-p2471.pdf
http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/156913302100418628
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/dc77/1e7870961e84b4134bb22939f0ef8db4b370.pdf
Image - http://www.shutterstock.com/

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